Tag Archives: Parramatta recruits

Sidney Stanley CANNON

Sidney Stanley CANNON

Private Sidney Stanley Cannon (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 7/7/1917)

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4744), Sidney Stanley Cannon was born at Parramatta, N.S.W.[1]  He gave his age as 21 years and 3 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as carpenter.  His description on his Certificate of Medical Examination was height 5 feet 8 inches tall, weight 135 lbs., with a fair complexion, hazel eyes, and brown hair.  His religious denomination was recorded as Church of England.  He claimed that he had 4 years previous military service in the Senior Cadets (universal training).

He completed his medical examination on 10th November 1915 at Parramatta, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta on 11th November 1915.

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

On 2nd February 1916 whilst training at the Liverpool Camp Private Cannon was charged with being absent without leave for 2 days and from 1 parade.  He was fined 10 shillings.

On 22nd February 1916 Private Cannon was charged with being absent from fatigue and insubordination.  He was fined a total of 25 shillings.

On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was George Street, Parramatta, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, I. [Isaac] R. Cannon, at the same address.

On 8th March 1916, Private Cannon, along with many of the other Coo-ees, departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England, with the 15th reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.  He arrived in Egypt on the 11th April 1916.

On 16th April 1916 Private Cannon was transferred to the 4th Pioneer Battalion at Tel-el-Kebir, Egypt.

On 4th June 1916 Private Cannon left Alexandria aboard the Transport Scotian bound for France.  He arrived at Marseilles on 11th June 1916.

On 9th July 1916 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was engaged in works in the vicinity of Fleurbaix, France when Private Cannon was evacuated to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance suffering from Bronchitis.  On 10th July 1916 he was transferred to the 5th Divisional Rest Station.  On 14th July 1916 he re-joined the 4th Pioneer Battalion as it arrived at Canaples, France, for training.

On 4th November 1916 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was training at Breilly, France, when Private Cannon was admitted to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance with stiff joints.  He was admitted to the 3rd Stationary Hospital at Amiens, France, later that day with an injured thumb. A note in his service record reported that his injury to thumb was ‘caused by cold exposure when on duty, soldier not to blame’.  On 8th November 1916 he was placed aboard the 4th Ambulance Train and moved to the 1st Australian General Hospital in Rouen, France, where he was admitted the next day.  He was transferred to the 2nd Convalescent Depot at Rouen with a dislocated thumb on 10th November 1916.

On 23rd November 1916 Private Cannon was discharged and sent to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples, France.  He was admitted to the 26th General Hospital at Etaples with the dislocated thumb on 28th November 1916.  On 2nd December 1916 he was discharged to the 6th Convalescent Depot.  He was sent back to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot on 13th December 1916.

On 17th January 1917 Private Cannon marched out of the 4th Australian Division Base Depot to return to his unit.  He re-joined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 19th January 1917 when it was conducting works in the vicinity of Longueval, France.

On 6th June 1917 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was in camp in the vicinity of Messines, Belgium, where it had been constructing roads, when Private Cannon was wounded in action, receiving an explosive shell wound to his right temple.[2]  On 6th June 1917 Private Cannon was evacuated to the 77th Field Ambulance, then moved back to the 53rd Casualty Clearing Station, then to the 1st Casualty Clearing Station, before he was admitted to the 1st New Zealand Stationary Hospital at Hazebrouck, France.

On 3rd July 1917 Private Cannon was placed aboard the 8th Ambulance Train and sent to the 13th General Hospital at Boulogne, France, and admitted with gunshot wound to the temple.

On 13th July 1917 Private Cannon was sent by Hospital Ship to England.  He was admitted to the Fulham Military Hospital on 14th July 1917.

On 3rd August 1917 Private Cannon was transferred to the 1st Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Harefield, England.  On 9th August 1917 he was granted leave, to report to the No. 2 Command Depot at Weymouth on 23rd August 1917.

On 28th August 1917 Private Cannon was transferred to the No. 4 Command Depot at Codford, England.

On 30th October 1917 Private Cannon went before a Medical Board that classed him unfit for general service for more than six months and unfit for home service, due to his gunshot wound and strain.

On 24th November 1917 Private Cannon was transferred back to the No. 2 Command Depot at Weymouth.

Private Cannon commenced his return to Australia from Plymouth on 20th December 1917 aboard the HMAT A54 Runic to be medically discharged with gunshot wound, right ankle debility and tachycardia.

He arrived in Australia on 14th February 1918.

On 6th July 1918 Private Cannon went before a Medical Board at the 4th Australian General Hospital at Randwick, Sydney, where his recommendation to be discharged was confirmed.

He was discharged medically unfit on 20th July 1918.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, CANNON S S

[2] AWM4 14/16/16 – June 1917, Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War, 4th Australian Pioneer Battalion.

Harold Edmund CROUCH

Harold Edmund CROUCH

Per his military service record (Depot), Harold Edmund Crouch was born at Parramatta, N.S.W.[1]  He gave his age as 18 years and 11 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as painter.  His description on his Certificate of medical examination was height 5 feet 5 ½ inches tall, weight 120lbs, with a fair complexion, greyish eyes, and brown hair.  His religious denomination was Church of England.  His next of kin on his Attestation paper was listed his mother, Mary E. Crouch, Hunter Street, Parramatta.

He completed his medical examination at Parramatta on 10th November 1915, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta, on 11th November 1915.  He claimed to have one years previous military experience with the Senior Cadets.

He was one of the 41 men who had offered themselves as recruits at the recruiting meeting held for the Coo-ees in the Park at Parramatta on Wednesday evening 10th November 1915.[2]

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

A letter in his service record from his mother, M. E. Crouch, dated 10th November 1915, had given consent for her son to enlist.[3]

However, a few weeks later, his mother sent a letter to the A.I.F. dated 21st December 1915 withdrawing her consent, in which she stated: ‘’I hearby apply for my son’s discharge from the Military Force on account of his age and health, consent given last November”.[4]

His actual age is not listed in his service record, but his birth was registered in 1899, so it is likely he may only have been 16 years of age when he enlisted.[5]

He was discharged at parents request, on 5th January 1916.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, CROUCH H E

[2] ‘The procession’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 13 November 1915, p. 11, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101767

[3] NAA: B2455, CROUCH H E, letter to the bearer, from M. E. Crouch, 10 November 1915.

[4] NAA: B2455, CROUCH H E, letter from M. E. Crouch, 21 December 1915.

[5] NSW BDM Index, Births, CROUCH HAROLD E  6066/1899  CHARLES MARY E PARRAMATTA

 

 

Arthur LAKEMAN

Arthur LAKEMAN

Per his military service record (Depot), Arthur Lakeman was born at Parramatta, N.S.W.[1]  He gave his age as 18 years and 1 month, his marital status as single, and his occupation as baker.  His description on his Certificate of medical examination was height 5 feet 7 inches tall, weight 8 stone 2 lbs, with a dark complexion, dark brown eyes, and fair hair.  His religious denomination was Methodist.  His next of kin on his Attestation paper was listed his father, Albert Lakeman, Church Street, Parramatta, N.S.W.

He completed his medical examination at Parramatta, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta, on 11th November 1915.  He claimed to have two years previous military experience with the 20th Infantry at Parramatta.

He was one of the 41 men who had offered themselves as recruits at the recruiting meeting held for the Coo-ees in the Park at Parramatta on Wednesday evening 10th November 1915.[2]

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp with the Coo-ee Detachment.  However, his service in the A.I.F. was to be short, as he was underage.

A letter from his mother Mrs A. J. Lakeman in his service record requesting his discharge dated 15th November 1915 stated: “My son Arthur Charles Lakeman enlisted in Parramatta with the Gilgandra Coo-ees on Wednesday night last without my consent as he will not be eighteen till Dec 23 (birth certificate enclosed). I with hold my consent. This boy stutters badly and his eyesight is not good as he tried before to enlist but was turned down on that account”.[3]

He was discharged parents request, being underage, on 25th November 1915.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, LAKEMAN ARTHUR E.

[2] ‘The procession’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 13 November 1915, p. 11, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101767

[3] NAA: B2455, LAKEMAN ARTHUR E, letter to Colonel Simpson, AAG Headquarters, Liverpool,  from Mrs A. J. Lakeman, 15 November 1915.

Francis Charles Edward CLARKE

Francis Charles Edward CLARKE

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4746, Francis Charles Edward Clarke was born at Melbourne, Victoria[1]  He gave his age as 20 years and 9 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as engineering fitter. His description on his Certificate of Medical Examination was height 5 feet 10 inches tall, weight 125 lbs., with a fair complexion, hazel eyes, and brown hair.  His religious denomination was recorded as Baptist.  He claimed that he had 1 years previous military service in the Cadets (universal training).  He also stated that he had been previously rejected by the AIF due to deficient chest measurement.  A letter from his parents F. [Francis] Clarke and Emily B. Clarke dated 12th November 1915 in his service record gave permission for their son to ‘join the forces for the front’.

He completed his medical examination on 11th November 1915 at Parramatta, and was attested at Liverpool on the 15th November 1915 (with the Oath to be taken by person being enlisted section dated from 11th November 1915).  His Statement of Service in his service record dates from 11th November 1915.

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was Harris Street, Harris Park, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, E.[sic] Clarke, at the same address.  His “Date of joining” on his embarkation roll was 11th November 1915 (the day the Coo-ees marched from Parramatta to Ashfield).

On 8th March 1916, Private Clarke, along with many of the other Coo-ees, departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England.  He arrived in Egypt on the 11th April 1916.

On 16th April 1916 Private Clarke was transferred to the 4th Pioneer Battalion at Tel El Kebir, Egypt.

On 4th June 1916 Private Clarke left Alexandria aboard the transport Scotian bound for France.  He arrived at Marseilles on 11th June 1916.

On 12th May 1917 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was training at St Gratien, France, where Private Clarke was promoted to Lance Corporal.

On 20th May 1917 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was resting at Vieux Berquin, France, where Lance Corporal Clarke was promoted to Corporal.

On 13th July 1917 the 4th Pioneer Battalion was constructing tramways in the vicinity of Messines, Belgium, when Corporal Clarke was admitted to the 13th Australian Field Ambulance suffering from D.A.H. (Disordered Action of the Heart).  He was discharged from hospital to duty on 15th July 1917.

Corporal Clarke rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 16th July 1917.  The next day he was admitted to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance with D.A.H.  He was transferred to the 2nd Casualty Clearing Station on the 20th of July 1917.  On the 21st of July 1917 he was placed aboard the 27th Ambulance Train and sent to Rouen, France, where he was admitted to the 5th General Hospital the next day on 22nd July 1917.  On 23rd of July 1917 he was sent to the 2nd Convalescent Depot.  On the 6th of August 1917 he was sent to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve, France.

On 15th October 1917 Corporal Clarke was admitted to the 2nd General Hospital at Le Havre suffering Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection).  He was discharged back to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot on 21st October 1917.

Corporal Clarke rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 13th November 1917 when it was conducting works in the vicinity of Ypres, Belgium.

On 20th January 1918 Corporal Clarke was sent to Gas School.  He rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 26th January 1918 when it was conducting works in the vicinity of Godezonne, Belgium.

On 3rd March 1918 Corporal Clarke went to Paris on leave.  He rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 12th March 1918 when it was conducting works in the vicinity of Vierstraat, Belgium.

On 14th March 1918 Corporal Clarke was admitted to the 12th Australian Field Ambulance suffering Scabies.  He rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 23rd March 1918 when it was conducting works in the vicinity of Messines, Belgium.

On 8th October 1918 Corporal Clare went on leave to England.  He returned to the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 25th October 1918 when it was conducting training in the vicinity of Ailly-sur-Somme, France.

On 27th December 1918 Corporal Clarke was detached for duty with the 353rd Electrical and Mechanical Company.  He rejoined the 4th Pioneer Battalion on 25th January 1919.

On 27th January 1919 Corporal Clarke marched out of the 4th Pioneer Battalion to the Australian Base Depot at Le Harve to commence his return to Australia.

On 10th February 1919 he departed Le Harve, France, bound for England.  He arrived at Weymouth and marched in to the 3rd Training Brigade on 11th February 1919.

Corporal Clarke commenced his return to Australia on 13th April 1919 aboard the H.T. Commonwealth.

He arrived at Sydney in Australia on 12th June 1919.

He was discharged Termination of Period of Enlistment on 27th July 1919.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, CLARKE F C E

John Hole SAUNDERS

John Hole SAUNDERS

Private J. H. Saunders (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate 27/5/1916)

Per his military service record (regimental no. 5766), John Hole Saunders was born at Parramatta, N.S.W.[1]  He gave his age as 18 years and 10 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as shop assistant.  His description on his Certificate of Medical Examination form was height 5 feet 7 ½ inches tall, weight 123 lbs., with a fair complexion, blue eyes, and brown hair. His religious denomination was Methodist.  He claimed to have 4 years universal military training and was still serving.

He completed his medical examination on 10th November 1915 at Parramatta, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta on 11th November 1915, when the Coo-ees were recruiting at Parramatta.  He claimed that he had 4 years military service in the Cadets.

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate reported that Private ‘Jack’ Saunders’ was presented with a silver-mounted pipe, fountain pen, and other articles, at a send-off held for him and fellow Parramatta recruit Private Roy McMillan, at Parramatta on Monday 14th February 1916. [2]

On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was Dersmore, Crimea Street, Parramatta, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, J. H. [John Hole] Saunders, at the same address.

On 3rd May 1916 Private Saunders departed Sydney on the HMAT A46 Clan McGillivray, as part of the 18th reinforcements for the 13th Battalion.

He arrived in Egypt in June 1916.

On Te-el-Kebir on 25th July 1916 Private Saunders was charged with conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline in that whilst on a route march disobeyed an order directly given by his superior officer.  He was awarded 2 days confined to barracks.

On 8th August 1916 Private Saunders departed Egypt bound for England aboard the Transport Megantic.

On 12th December 1916 Private Saunders departed Folkestone, England, aboard the SS Arundle bound for France.  He marched into the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples, France on 13th December 1916.

On 19th December 1916 Private Saunders marched into the 13th Battalion when it was training at Coisy, France.

On 13th January 1917 the 13th Battalion was conducting fatigue duties at Mametz, France, when Private Saunders was evacuated the 5th Australian Field Ambulance sick with Influenza.  On 15th January 1917 he was sent to the 38th Casualty Clearing Station, then placed aboard the 25th Ambulance Train for journey to No. 10 General Hospital at Rouen, France.

On 26th January 1917 he was released from hospital and sent to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples, France.

He rejoined the 13th Battalion on 16th February 1917 whilst it was training and performing fatigue duties at Mametz, France.

On 11th April 1917 the 13th Battalion was involved in the attack on the Hindenburg line in the 1st Battle of Bullecourt, France, when Private Saunders was evacuated to the 8th Australian Field Ambulance suffering Asthma.  He was moved to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance, then sent to the 56th Casualty Clearing Station on the 20th April 1917.  On 23rd April 1917 he was transferred to the 11th Stationary Hospital at Rouen, France.

He was discharged from hospital on 26th April 1017 and sent to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples, France.  Whilst at the 4th Australian Division Base Depot Private Saunders was classified as “PB” [Permanent Base duties].

On 29th May 1919 he departed France bound for England with the status “P.B.”

Private Saunders arrived in Weymouth on 30th May 1917 and marched into the No. 2 Command Depot.

On the 4th of June 1917 he was transferred to the No. 1 Command Depot at Perham Downs, England.

On 9th June 1917 Private Saunders was classified as “B1A4” [fit for overseas training camp when passed dentally fit].[3]

On 13th September 1917 Private Saunders was reclassified as “A3” [fit for overseas training camp, to which transferred for hardening, prior to rejoining unit overseas].[4]

On 14th September 1917 Private Saunders was sent to the Headquarters Depots at Tidworth, England, to perform guard duties.

On 25th October 1917 Private Saunders was temporarily detached for duty at the Administrative Headquarters in London.

On 4th December 1917 Private Saunders was sent to the No. 3 Command Depot at Hurdcott, England.  On 5th December 1917 he was reclassified as “B1A3” [fit for overseas training camp in two to three weeks].[5]

On 15th December 1917 Private Saunders was reclassified “A3” [fit for overseas training camp, to which transferred for hardening, prior to rejoining unit overseas].[6]

On 19th December 1917 Private Saunders was transferred to the Overseas Training Brigade at Longbridge Deverill, England.

On 10th January 1918 he departed Southampton, England, bound for France.  He marched into the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve, France, on 11th January 1918.

On 18th January 1918 Private Saunders rejoined the 13th Battalion on 18th January 1918 when it was training at Locre, Belgium.

On 27th January 1918 the 13th Battalion was at White Chateau was manning the front line near Hollebeke in Belgium when Private Saunders was evacuated to the 13th Australian Field Ambulance suffering Balantitis.  He was moved back to the 2nd Australian Casualty Clearing Station.  On 29th January 1918 he was placed aboard the 39th Ambulance Train and transported to the 39th General Hospital at Le Havre France, where he was admitted on 1st February 1918. He was discharged on 3rd February 1918, and sent to the 4th Australian Division Base depot at Le Harve.

He rejoined the 13th Battalion on 12th of February 1918 when it was training at Locre, Belgium.

On 9th May 1918 the 13th Battalion was manning support lines near Villers Bretonneux, France, when Private Saunders was evacuated to the 13th Australian Field Ambulance sick.  He was moved back to the 61st Casualty Clearing Station then on 10th May 1918 he was placed aboard the 28th Ambulance Train for journey to the 39th General Hospital at Le Harve, France, where he was admitted on13th May 1918.

Private Saunders was discharged from hospital on 16th July 1918 and marched into the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve that same day.

He rejoined the 13th Battalion on 3rd August 1918 when it was manning the front line south of Villers Bretonneux, France.

On 7th August 1918 the 13th Battalion was preparing to move forward to participate in an attack on the German lines  around Amiens when Private Saunders went absent without leave at 9.30 p.m.  He returned at 9.15 a.m. on 12th August 1918. On 22nd August 1918 he was charged with being absent without leave, and was awarded 28 days field punishment No. 2 and fined 33 days pay.

On 15th September 1918 the 13th Battalion was preparing to move forward to the front line when Private Saunders went absent without leave again.

He was located on 18th September 1918 and charged with desertion.  On 7th October 1918 a Field General Courts Martial was held where Private Saunders was charged with Desertion.  He pleaded Not Guilty.  He was found Guilty, and he was sentenced to serve 10 years Penal Servitude.

On 8th November 1918 Private Saunders marched into the No. 1 Military Prison at Rouen, France.

On 17th February 1919 he was transferred to England on SS Nirvana to serve the remainder of his sentence.  On 19th February 1919 Private Saunders marched into His Majesty’s Prison at Portland in England.

On 25th April 1919 Private Saunders’ prison sentence was suspended, and he was released and marched into the No. 4 Group at Hurdcott, England, on 26th April 1919.

On 2nd June 1919 Private Saunders departed Devonport, England, aboard the HT Beltana bound for Australia.

He arrived in Sydney on 20th July 1919, and was discharged Termination of Period of Enlistment on 4th September 1919.

 

[1] NAA B2455, SAUNDERS JOHN HOB

[2] ‘The Sheepskin Fund’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 19 February 1916, p. 11. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86072411

[3] Department of Veterans Affairs, ‘Army Medical Classifications – World War 1’ in Chapter 5 Abbreviations and Medical Classifications’, http://www.dva.gov.au/consultation-and-grants/advocacy-training/repatriation-handbooks

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

Reginald Arthur COWELL

Reginald Arthur COWELL

Private R. A. Cowell (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate 19/1/1918)

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4751), Reginald Arthur Cowell was born at Ermington, N.S.W.[1]  He gave his age as 19 years 5 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as nurseryman.  His description on his Certificate of Medical Examination form was height 5 feet 8 inches tall, weight 132 lbs., with a sallow complexion, brown eyes, and dark brown hair.  His religious denomination was Church of England.  He claimed that he had no previous military service.

Reginald Arthur Cowell joined the Coo-ees at Parramatta.[2]  The Coo-ees had held a recruiting meeting in the Park at Parramatta on the evening of the 10th November, where it was reported that 41 men had offered themselves as recruits.[3]

He completed his medical examination at Parramatta on 10th November 1915, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta on 11th November 1915.

After completing the Co-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate reported on 11th March 1916 that a send-off had been given for Private Reginald Cowell the previous Friday ‘who is leaving with the Coo-ees this week for the front’, and that he was presented ‘with a silver-mounted pipe, tobacco pouch and silver pencil’.[4]

On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was Excelsior Avenue, Castle Hill, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, W. A. [William Arthur] Cowell, at the same address.

On 8th March 1916 Private Cowell, along with many of the other Coo-ees, departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England, and arrived in Egypt on 11th April 1916.

On 7th June 1916 Private Cowell left Alexandria aboard the Transport Ionian bound for France, and he arrived at Marseilles on 14th June 1916.

Private Cowell, (along with several other Coo-ees, including Privates Watson, Easterbrook, Healey, and Mason), marched into the 13th Battalion on 19th August 1916 when it was resting and reorganising at Pernois, France.

On 23rd September 1916 the 13th Battalion was manning the front line in the vicinity of Voormezeele, Belgium when Private Cowell was transferred to the 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery.

On 25th September he was taken on strength of the 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery in the vicinity of Voormezeele, Belgium.

On 11th April 1917 the 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery was involved in the attack on the Hindenburg Line in the vicinity of Bullecourt, France, when Private Cowell was wounded in action, receiving at shrapnel wound to his face.  He was evacuated to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance.  He was then moved back to the 9th Casualty Clearing Station.  On 12th April he was placed aboard the 11th Ambulance Train. He was admitted to the 1st General Hospital at Rouen on 13th April 1917.

On 28th April 1917 Private Cowell was discharged to Base details and sent to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve, France.

On 22nd June 1917 Private Cowell was charged with being absent without leave from Sick Parade.  He was awarded forfeiture of two days pay.

On 1st July 1917 Private Cowell departed the 4th Australian Division Base Depot to return to his unit.  He joined the 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery on 5th July 1917 when it was manning the front line in the vicinity of Ypres, Belgium.

On 19th October 1917 Private Cowell was with the 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery manning the front line in the vicinity of Passchendaele, Belgium, when he was wounded in action for the second time, receiving a shrapnel wound to his right eye.  He was evacuated to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance.  On 26th October 1917 he was discharged and returned to his unit in Belgium.

On 5th September 1918 Private Cowell was sent to England on leave.  He returned to his unit in France from leave on 23rd September 1918.

On 30th January 1919 Private Cowell was sent to the Australian Base Depot at Le Harve to begin his return to Australia.  He left Le Harve on 10th February 1919, and arrived at Weymouth in England on 11th February 1919.

On 15th February 1919 Private Cowell was admitted to the Fovant Military Hospital seriously ill with Broncho Pneumonia.  On 27th February 1919 he was transferred to the 1st Australian General Hospital at Sutton Veny, England.  He was discharged from hospital to the 3rd Training Brigade on 15th March 1919.

Private Cowell departed England aboard the H.T. Commonwealth bound for Australia on 13th April 1919.

He arrived in Australia on 12th June 1919, and was discharged on 17th October 1919.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, COWELL R A

[2] ‘Our Brave Boys on the Battle Fields’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 19 January 1918, p. 4. Retrieved April 1, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86205203

[3] ‘The procession’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 13 November 1915, p. 11, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101767

[4] ‘A Send-off’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 11 March 1916, p. 11. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86070741

 

Cyril Roy MCMILLAN

Cyril Roy MCMILLAN

Private Roy McMillan (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 11/5/1918)

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4861), Cyril Roy McMillan was born at Singleton, N.S.W.[1]  (This place of birth appears to have been recorded in error, as his birth was registered at Silverton, N.S.W., where his father was stationed as a Police Constable).[2]  He gave his age as 19 years and 2 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as engineer.  His description on his Certificate of Medical Examination was 5 feet 7 inches tall, weight 123 ½ lbs., with a fair complexion, blue eyes, and brown hair.  His religious denomination was Church of England.  He claimed to have 4 years military service in the Cadets and was still serving.

He completed his medical examination at Parramatta on 10th November 1915.  His initial Application to Enlist in the Australian Imperial Force form was dated 11th November 1915, and his father’s signature giving his consent is on this form.  He was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta on 11th November 1915.

After a successful recruiting meeting the evening before, the Coo-ees left Parramatta on the morning of 11th November 1915, with an official count of 27 new recruits from that town.

After completing the Coo-ee March Cyril Roy McMillan went into Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

On 11th February 1916 Private McMillan was charged with being absent from fatigue duty.  He was fined 5 Shillings.

The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate reported that Private ‘Roy McMillan’ was presented with a silver-mounted pipe, fountain pen, and other articles, at a send-off held for him and fellow Parramatta recruit Jack Saunders, at Parramatta on Monday 14th February 1916.[3] (He was named as Roy McMillan in several articles in The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate).

On his embarkation roll Private McMillan’s address at time of enrolment was Marsden Street, Parramatta, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, F. C. [Franklin Cutbush]. McMillan, at the same address.

On 8th March 1916 Private McMillan, along with many of the other Coo-ees, departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England, as15th reinforcements for the 13th Battalion.  He arrived in Egypt on 11th April 1916.

On 19th April 1916 Private McMillan was transferred to the 45th Battalion in Egypt.

On 2nd June 1916 Private McMillan left Alexandria aboard the transport Kinfauns Castle bound for France.  He arrived at Marseilles on 8th June 1916.

On 4th July 1916 the 45th Battalion was at Sailly-Sur-Lys preparing to move into the trenches for the first time, when Private McMillan was evacuated to the12th Australian Field Ambulance suffering from septic foot.  On 7th July 1916 he was sent to the 4th Division Rest Station.  He rejoined the 45th Battalion on the 12th of July 1916.

On 20th June 1916 Private McMillan was charged with being absent from billet without leave.  He was awarded 7 days confined to barracks.

On 6th September 1916 the 45th Battalion was refitting at Beauval, France, when Private McMillan was evacuated to  hospital. On 10th September 1916 he was admitted to the 2nd Canadian Stationary Hospital suffering myalgia.  On 19th September 1916 he was discharged from hospital to the 1st Convalescent Depot.  On 24th September 1916 he went to the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples, France.  He rejoined the 45th Battalion on 17th October 1916.

On 7th March 1917 the 45th Battalion was training at Bresle, France, when Private McMillan was evacuated to the 12th Australian Field Ambulance, then transferred to the 3rd Australian Field Ambulance with trench feet.  On 8th March 1917 he was moved back to the 45th Casualty Clearing Station.  On 11th March 1917 he was placed aboard the 9th Ambulance Train and admitted to the 3rd Stationary Hospital at Rouen, France.  On 13th March 1917 he was placed aboard the Hospital Ship Warilda at Le Havre for transfer to England with trench feet.  He was admitted to the Kitchener Military Hospital at Brighton, England, on 14th March 1916.

A letter dated 23rd March 1917 that he sent home to his father was reported on in the The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate: ‘Sergeant McMillan, of the Parramatta police force, has received a letter from his son, Private Cyril Roy McMillan … in which he stated that he had then been in hospital in England suffering with trench feet’, and that ‘In describing the complaint, he says that the toes swell up, then wither away, and fall off in bad cases’.[4]

On 27th April 1917 Private McMillan was discharged from hospital and granted leave to report to the No. 1 Command Depot at Perham Downs on 12th May 1917.

On 20th July 1917 he was transferred to the No. 3 Command Depot at Hurdcott, England.

On 23rd November 1917 he marched in to the No. 1 Command Depot at Sutton Veny.

On 6th December 1917 he marched into the Overseas Training Brigade at Longbridge Deverill, England, near Sutton Veny.

On 3rd January 1918 Private McMillan departed Southampton bound for France.  He arrived at the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve, France, on 4th January 1918.

On 22nd January 1918 Private McMillan rejoined the 45th Battalion when it was resting at La Clytte, Belgium.

On 5th and 6th April 1918 the 45th Battalion was in action around Dernacourt, France.  On 13th April 1918 it was recorded in Private McMillan’s service record that he was reported Missing In Action on 5th April 1918.  On 14th May 1918 he was reported to be a Prisoner of War in Germany.

After being released at the end of hostilities, Private McMillan was repatriated to England on 10th December 1918, and admitted to the 4th London General Hospital, suffering Dysentery.  On 18th December he was transferred to the 3rd Australian Auxiliary Hospital.

Private McMillan wrote the following letter to The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate about his prisoner of war experience, which was published in the paper on 18th January 1919:

‘France, 30th Nov., 1918. The following letter reached ‘The Argus’ on Thursday: — “Dear Sir, — I am sending you a few lines, and would like you to publish them in the old paper.  I left Parramatta three years ago, with the Coo-ees, and I am sorry to say there are only two or three of us left to tell the tale.  I was taken prisoner in that big stunt last March and April.  One of my mates that I enlisted with was killed alongside me, just before we started to advance towards the Germans.  His name is Webber.[5]  Most of the boys will know him.  For the first five days I was captured I had nothing to eat.  All they would give us was a drop of water to drink. We were taken further back behind the lines, and there we were counted out into working parties, about 300 in a party, then again sent up behind the German lines, on munition dumps, and different kinds of work.  There we stayed until our people started to make the big advance, and we were gradually moved back to Germany. But never the whole journey did we have a lift in a train or motor lorry.  We had to foot it the whole way, right across Belgium, 20 and 30 miles a day, and hardly anything to eat. In passing through the Belgium towns the Belgians would do their best to help us.  They would give us bread and comforts, but the Germans would take all that off us and knock us down with their rifles. But we were never downhearted — we would scramble to our foot again and still have another go at it.  It was either that or starvation.  We were mostly living on potato peelings, turnip peelings, and cabbag[e] leaves, and it was an awful sight to see us having our dinner.  The poor lads were dying every day, and yet they would not give us any care.  When we wanted a smoke we had to pick up the ends of cigarettes and cigars which the Germans had dropped, and not every one of us could get that much.  You can’t imagine how happy we are to-day, now that we are released.  We were released about two weeks ago.  They just cast us adrift and told us to find our way back.  They never gave us any bread to start with, not even a bite.  Only for the Belgians we should have had hundreds of deaths along the road.  But the Belgians cared for us in every manner possible.  My mate and I were taken in by a Belgian lady, and there we stayed for five days, living on the best.  When we were leaving they packed our bags with sandwiches and cakes, also plenty of cigarettes and money.  We crossed the British lines on the 17th Nov., and we were heartily greeted by our own lads.  Several of us had to go to hospital through sickness.  I am in hospital at present, but will be across to England for Christmas, and hope to be home in Parramatta shortly afterwards.  I think I will close for the present, as it is getting beyond my time for sitting up. — I remain, your soldier friend, No. 4861, Pte. C. R. McMillan ’45th Batt.'” [Private McMillan is a son of Sergt. McMillan, till recently stationed at Parramatta police station.]’[6]

On 23rd December 1918 Private McMillan was discharged from hospital, and granted leave to report to the No. 1 Command Depot at Sutton Veny, England, on 23rd January 1919.

He was granted leave again from 7th June 1919 to 19th September 1919.  During this period of leave he attended a Motor Training Institute in London.

On 25th September 1919 Private McMillan departed Devonport, England, aboard the H.T. Port Denison, bound for Australia.

He arrived in Australia on 17th November 1919, and was discharged Termination of Period of Enlistment on 9th January 1920.

 

[1] NAA: B2455, MCMILLAN C R

[2] NSW Birth Registration, MCMILLAN CYRIL R 34803/1896 FRANKLIN C MARGARET A SILVERTON ;  ‘Local and General’, Western Grazier, 15 January 1896,  p. 2. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13381118

[3] ‘The Sheepskin Fund’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 19 February 1916, p. 11. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86072411

[4] ‘Personal Pars’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 26 May 1917, p. 6. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86086965

[5] William WEBBER  was one of the Coo-ees attested at Ashfield.  He was killed in action on 6th April 1918.

[6] ‘German Atrocities. A Parramatta Prisoner’s Story’, .The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 18 January 1919, p. 10. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86118958

 

Charles Robert RICHARDSON

Charles Robert RICHARDSON

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4884), Charles Robert Richardson was born at Castle Hill, N.S.W.  He gave his age as 24 years and 8 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as labourer. His description on his medical was 5 feet 5 ½ inches tall, weight 132 lbs., with a fair complexion, blue eyes, and brown hair. His religious denomination was Church of England. He claimed that he had no previous military service. He completed his medical examination, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe, at Parramatta, on the 11th November 1915.

After a successful recruiting meeting the evening before, the Coo-ees left Parramatta on the morning of 11th November 1915, with an official count of 27 new recruits from that town.

After the Coo-ee March Charles Robert Richardson went into Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.

On Private Richardson’s embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was C/o  Mrs Clark, Harris Street, Harris Park, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his mother, Mrs M.A. Richardson, C/o Mrs McKay, Sydney Road, Granville, N.S.W.

On 8th March 1916 Private Richardson departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England, along with many of the other Coo-ees, as part of the 15th reinforcements for the 13th Battalion. He arrived in Egypt on 11th April 1916.

On 16th April 1916 he was transferred to the 5th Division Cyclist’s Company (along with fellow Coo-ee Private Megarrity).

On 17thJune 1916 Private Richardson left Alexandria aboard the Transport Manitou bound for France, arriving at Marseilles on 25th June 1916.

On 23rd July 1916 Private Richardson was detached for duty with the A.P.M. of the New Zealand Division.

On 8th November 1916 Private Richardson was admitted to the 103rd Field Ambulance suffering Influenza.  On 11th November  1916 he was transferred to a Rest Station.  He rejoined the unit on 16th November 1916.

On 21st November 1916 Private Richardson took part in a trench raid during which he was wounded in action, receiving gunshot wounds to his left leg and arms.  He was evacuated to 103rd Field Ambulance, then to the 8th Casualty Clearing Station .

On 23rd November 1916 he was placed aboard the 18th Ambulance Train for evacuation to the 13th General Hospital at Boulogne, France.

On 26th November 1916 he was embarked at Boulogne on the Hospital Ship Jan Breydel for transport to England.  He was admitted to the Chatham Military Hospital that same day, with multiple gunshot wounds, knees and arms.

On 20th March 1917 Private Richardson was transferred to the 2nd Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Southall, England.

On 22nd March 1917 he was discharged from hospital and granted leave, to report to the Number 2 Command Depot at Weymouth, England, on 6th April 1917.

On 23rd May 1917 Private Richardson departed England at Devonport, aboard the H.M.A.T. Ayrshire, to return to Australia.

He arrived in Sydney on 20th July 1917, and was discharged Medically Unfit on 20th October 1917.

John Edward Leslie HOURIGAN

John Edward Leslie HOURIGAN

Corporal J. E. L. Hourigan (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate 12/8/1916)

Corporal J. E. L. Hourigan (Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate 12/8/1916)

Per his military service record (regimental no. 4787), John Edward Leslie Hourigan was born at Parramatta, N.S.W. He gave his age as 21 years and 1 month, his marital status as single, and his occupation as carter. His description on his medical was height 5 feet 7 inches tall, weight 166 lbs., with a fair complexion, blue eyes, and fair hair. His religious denomination was Roman Catholic. He claimed to have 4 years U. T. [universal training] experience and was still serving.

“Jack” Hourigan was reported in The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate as enlisting with the Coo-ees at Parramatta.[1] He completed his medical on the 11th November 1915 at Parramatta, and was attested by Lieutenant R. Howe at Parramatta on the 11th November 1915.

After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion. His service record shows he was made Acting Corporal from 11th November 1915.

He was reported in The Farmer and Settler on 5th January 1916 as being one of the Corporals in E company from the “Coo-ees” column, and it was noted that ‘as the “Coo-ees” are reinforcements for a battalion already at the front, and not part of a new battalion, these ranks may be only temporary’.[2]

On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was 415 Church Street, Parramatta, N.S.W., and his next of kin is listed as his father, J. Hourigan, at the same address.

On 8th March 1916 Acting Corporal Hourigan departed Sydney on the HMAT A15 Star of England, along with many of the other Coo-ees, as part of the 15th reinforcements for the 13th Battalion. He arrived in Egypt on 11th April 1916.

On 19th April 1916, he was transferred to the 45th Battalion in Egypt,  along with some of the other Coo-ees.

On 29th May 1915 his promotion to Corporal was confirmed.

On 2nd June 1916 Corporal Hourigan left Alexandria aboard the transport Kinfauns Castle bound for France with other members of the 45th Battalion, arriving at Marseilles on 8th June 1916.

On 8th July 1916 the 45th Battalion was in the front line for the first time in the vicinity of Fleurbaix, France, when Corporal Hourigan was wounded in action, receiving a severe gunshot wound to his scalp. He was evacuated to the 4th Australian Field Ambulance then moved back to the 8th Casualty Clearing Station on 9th July 1916.

On 21st July 1916 he was sent to the 30th General Hospital at Calais in France. On 22nd July he was placed aboard the Hospital Ship Brighton for evacuation to England. He was admitted to the Wharncliffe War Hospital at Sheffield in England on 23rd July 1916.

On 21st September 1916 Corporal Hourigan was transferred to the 1st Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Harefield, England.

On 23rd September 1916 he was discharged from hospital, and marched into the Number 2 Command Depot at Weymouth, England.

On 14th October 1916 he was charge with overstaying leave from 3 p.m. on 11th October until 8 p.m. on 13th October 1916. He was reprimanded by the Colonel, and forfeited 3 days pay.

Corporal Hourigan was transferred to the Infantry Draft Depot at Pernham Downs in England on 24th January 1917.

On 13th March 1917 Corporal Hourigan departed Folkestone bound for France. He arrived at the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples in France on 14th March 1917. Corporal Hourigan rejoined the 45th Battalion on 29th March 1917 when it was training in the vicinity of Bapaume, France.

In October 1917 Corporal Hourigan was sent to the Lieutenants Training School at the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve in France, however on 15th October 1917 he was charged with absenting himself from 10 p.m. on 13th October until 9.20 p.m. on 14th October 1917. He was reprimanded by the Commanding Officer, fined 2 days pay, and sent back to the 45th Battalion on 22nd October 1917.

On 21st January 1918 Corporal Hourigan went on 14 days leave to England.

He rejoined the Battalion on 9th February 1918 when it was being relieved from the front line in the vicinity of Hollebeke in Belgium.

On 25th March 1918 the 45th Battalion was moving by motor buses from Belgium to the Somme battlefield in France, when Corporal Hourigan sprained his left ankle.[3] He was evacuated to the 12th Australian Field Ambulance, then moved back to the 1st Australian Casualty Clearing Station, then placed aboard the 20th Ambulance Train, where he was conveyed to the 9th Canadian Stationary Hospital, being admitted on 26th March 1918.

On 29th March 1918 he was sent to the 7th Convalescent Depot at Boulogne, France.

On 10th April 1918 he was moved to the 10th Convalescent Depot.

On 18th April 1918 he marched into the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Le Harve, France.

Corporal Hourigan rejoined the 45th Battalion on 13th May 1918 when it was in action in the vicinity of Villers Brettoneux, France.

On 6th November 1918 Corporal Hourigan was promoted to Sergeant.

Following the Armistice, on 19th November 1918 Sergeant Hourigan went on leave to England. He rejoined the 45th Battalion on 6th December 1918.

On 21st April 1919 Sergeant Hourigan marched into the Australian Base Depot at Le Harve to commence his return to Australia. He left for England the next day, on 22nd April 1919.

On 11th May 1919 Sergeant Hourigan departed England aboard the Transport Borda bound for Australia.

He arrived in Australia on 28th June 1919, and was discharged Termination of period of Enlistment on 12th August 1919.

[1] ‘Of the Boys’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 7 June 1919, p. 8, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86115560

[2] ‘Route Marches. Gathering of the Clans. The “Cooees”winning praise in camp’, The Farmer and Settler, 5 January 1916, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116676486

[3] Lee, J. E., The chronicle of the 45th Battalion A.I.F., East Sussex : The Naval & Military Press Ltd, [2009], p. 58.

Parramatta recruits

The Coo-ees had held a recruiting meeting in the Park at Parramatta on the evening of the 10th November, where it was reported that 41 men had offered themselves as recruits.[1]

The Sydney Morning Herald  reported the following official figures ‘of the men who actually signed on (after medical examination), between Gilgandra and Sydney:- Gilgandra, 35; Dubbo, 13; Wongarbon, 12; Geurie, 6; Wellington, 31; Stuart Town, 1; Euchareena, 1; Molong, 4; Parkes, 5; Orange, 19; Millthorpe, 2; Blayney, 11; Bathurst, 17; Glanmire, 1; Yetholme, 1; Wallerawang, 3; Lithgow, 19; Blackheath, 2; Katoomba, 11; Leura, 1; Lawson, 10; Springwood, 5; Penrith, 4; Parramatta, 27; Ashfield, 22; total, 263’.[2]

Parramatta’s “official” count of recruits who signed on after a medical examination was 27.

This is a list of 21 men who were attested at Parramatta at the time the Coo-ees were recruiting in Parramatta:

4734 Private Albert BROWN Corps Cyclist Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4737 Sapper John Beveridge BUXTON 7th Field Company (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4744 Private Sidney CANNON 4th Pioneer Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4749 Private Allan COLQUHOUN 13th Battalion (attested Parramatta 11/11/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

4751 Private Reginald Arthur COWELL 4th Division Light Trench Mortar Battery (attested Parramatta 11/1/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

Depot Private Harold Edmund CROUCH (attested Parramatta 11/1/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

4765 Private Albert DENZEL 45th Battalion (Military Medal) (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4773 Private William FARTHING 13th Battalion (attested Parramatta 11/1/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

6251 Private Francis Charles FINLAYSON 13th Infantry Battalion KIA 4/2/1917 (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4776 CQMS Maurice Bertram FREE 45th Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

Depot Private James GORDON (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4787 Sergeant John HOURIGAN 45th Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4813 Corporal Arthur IRWIN 45th Battalion, AAOC (attested Parramatta 11/11/1915 & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

Depot Private Arthur LAKEMAN (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4861 Private Cyril McMILLAN 45th Battalion (attested Parramatta 11/1/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

4849 Private Jack MORRIS 45th Battalion KIA 6/8/1916 (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4853 Private William Joseph MUNRO 13th Battalion (attested Parramatta 11/11/1915 & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4884 Private Charles RICHARDSON 2nd ANZAC Cyclist Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

5766 Private John SAUNDERS 13th Battalion (attested Parramatta 11/11/1915 & medical Parramatta 10/11/1915)

4905 Private Ernest Stephen TAYLOUR 45th Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

4914 Private Thomas WARD 2nd Australian Corps Cyclist Battalion (attested & medical Parramatta 11/11/1915)

We have names for 4 more men who did their medical at Parramatta at the time the Coo-ees were in Parramatta, but they were attested after the Coo-ees left Parramatta.

An individual blog entry will be added to this website for each of the above named men.

[1] ‘The procession’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 13 November 1915, p. 11, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101767

[2] ‘The increased ranks’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 November 1915, p. 20, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15624736