Category Archives: Research notes

Gilgandra Begins It : The Marching Song of the Coo-ees

GILGANDRA BEGINS IT  – THE POEM AND THE SONG

There were several poems and songs written about the Coo-ees during the 1915 Coo-ee March.

First published was a poem written by Del. W. McCay called ‘Gilgandra Begins It’, which was published  two days after the Coo-ee March commenced, in his column ‘The Moving Picture-Show’ in The Sun, on 12th October 1915.[1]

''Gilgandra Begins It' (The Sun, 12/10/1915

”Gilgandra Begins It’ (The Sun, 12/10/1915

Gilgandra Begins It
They are coming from Gilgandra, our soldier-
men to be,
They sing along the Western tracks: “Who’ll
come and fight with me?”
On the country roads they’re coming;
Can you hear the distant drumming,
Can you hear the message humming
Over long, long miles of bushland from Gilgandra to the sea?

The lone selector hears them and shades his
straining eyes
To watch the Great Adventurers go winding
o’er the rise,
Who, from every hill and valley,
From the mulga and the mallee,
To the call of England rally
From the dusty, distant corners where her
Flag of Honor flies.

There are others who will join them as they
make their way along,
And will help to swell the chorus of their
mighty marching song,
For their ranks will keep on growing
More with every mile they’re going,
And they’ll make a gallant showing,
When through the streets of Sydney town
they pass, a thousand strong.

A column from Gilgandra— it has answered
to the call
That rings from far Gallipoli, where brothers fight and fall
When recruiting, sadly slumping.
Stood in need of hefty bumping.
More than all your country-stumping
Was the column from Gilgandra with its
shoulder to the ball.”

The words were re-published in The Blue Mountain Echo on 5th November 1915, with a note that ‘The above verses have been set to music by Rev. A. E. Ferguson, of the local Presbyterian Church, and will be a popular melody during the visit of the Gilgandra “Coo-ees” here, and afterwards at the Front.’[2]

The Blue Mountain Echo reported on 12th November 1915  that this song was sung by the choristers at the concert held for the Coo-ees at Katoomba on Friday night 5th November 1915, and ‘So stirring was it, in fact, that the “Coo-ees” have adopted it as their marching song’.[3]

The Blue Mountain Echo also printed this poem as a broadsheet with the heading Gilgandra Begins It. Words written by Del. W. McCay for the Sydney “Sun”.  A copy of this broadsheet is in the National Library of Australia collection.[4]  A digitised copy can be seen at http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151234776

Del. W. McCay (1915), Gilgandra begins it, National Library of Australia, nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151234776

Del. W. McCay (1915), Gilgandra begins it, National Library of Australia, nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151234776

The National Library of Australia also holds a copy of the printed music score by E. A. Ferguson, titled Gilgandra Begins It : The Marching Song of the Coo-ees.[5]  A digitised copy of this music score can be viewed at http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-166916648.  It has an attractive cover, with a photograph of the Coo-ees on it.

[1] ‘The Moving Picture-Show’, The Sun, 12 October 1915, p. 4. Retrieved December 7, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221925505

[2] ‘Gilgandra Begins It’, The Blue Mountain Echo, 5 November 1915, p. 7. Retrieved December 7, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108048615

[3] ‘March o’er the mountains, The Blue Mountain Echo,  12 November 1915, p. 3. Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108042142

[4] McCay, Del. W. (1915). Gilgandra begins it.  Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151234776

[5] Ferguson, Ernest Adie & McCay, Del. W. ([191-?]). Gilgandra begins it the marching song of the Coo-ees. Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-166916648

 

Coo-ee article in Journal of the Ashfield & District Historical Society Inc.

‘Coo-ee!’ article in Ashfield History No. 20, Journal of the Ashfield & District Historical Society Inc.

Ashfield History No 20, published by Ashfield & District Historical Society Inc., November 2015.

Ashfield History No 20, published by Ashfield & District Historical Society Inc., November 2015.

A very interesting 31 page article titled ‘Coo-ee’, written by Ann O’Connell, has been published in ‘Ashfield Answers the Call’, Ashfield History No. 20, Journal of the Ashfield and District Historical Society Inc.

Written from an Ashfield perspective, this provides a very informative overview of the 1915 Coo-ee March,  with information about the march from its beginning in Gilgandra to its end in Sydney, and the 22 recruits who joined the Coo-ee March at Ashfield.  The article also includes lots of very interesting illustrations, including some photographs which have not been published before being printed in this article.

These include photographs from the personal family albums of Lieutenant Frank Middenway’s daughters, now held by his granddaughters, Dorothy Clampett and Margaret Murden.  One of these photographs is of the Coo-ees marching in a procession in front of the Bathurst Court House, in Russell Street, Bathurst, and one of the ‘Coo-ees near Wang’, showing local people with pushbikes, horses and sulkies, greeting the Coo-ees on a country road near Wallerawang (both on page 42).

Lieutenant Middenway, from Lithgow Army Camp, accompanied Captain Eade and Staff Sergeant Major Scott from Lithgow to Sydney, to assist with recruitment on the Coo-ee March.[1] His signature as Attesting Officer is on many of the Coo-ees’ Attestation Papers in their service records.

This article also includes photographs of the Ashfield Drill Hall, where the Coo-ees stayed overnight on 11th November 1915.

There is also a photograph of one of the purple Coo-ee “badge” ribbons that has been kept in Lieutenant Middenway’s family album.

This journal issue is available from sale for $20.00 plus $10.00 postage and handling from the Ashfield & District Historical Society, PO Box 20, Ashfield, NSW 1800. See their publications page for further information:   http://users.tpg.com.au/adhsashfield1/ADHS-publications.htm

[1] ‘General’, Lithgow Mercury, 3 November 1915, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218452406

 

New WWI Timeline webpage

New WWI Timeline page

The story of the Coo-ees did not finish with their arrival in Sydney on 12th November 1915 at the end of the Coo-ee March.

One hundred years ago today, on 16th February 1916, the first group of fifteen Coo-ees embarked overseas on active service from Sydney, on the HMAT Ballarat A70.

Stephen and I plan to provide an overview of the Coo-ees’ involvement in the First World War on a WWI Timeline on this website.

We have spent the past few weeks collating the information we have collected on the Coo-ees to create a timeline of their involvement in WWI – what ships they embarked on from Australia to travel to Egypt or England, and for most, on to France to the Western Front, and the dates for those who were casualties. We are also gathering information for other significant events in their service, including information about those Coo-ees who received military awards for their actions.

We plan to tie these details in to the progress of the First World War in the Timeline.

Each month from February 2016 until the end of the centenary of WWI I aim to write a blog entry containing details for what happened regarding the Coo-ees for that month one hundred years’ previously, and add the entry’s details to the new WWI Timeline webpage at https://cooeemarch1915.com/wwi-timeline

Where names of the Coo-ees are listed in entries, their names will have hyperlinks to their individual records that I have written to date, for further information about each Coo-ee. (For those Coo-ees where I have not yet added an individual entry, I will update the Timeline with the hyperlink for each mention of their name after I complete their entry).

I will also from time to time add names for further Coo-ees to entries, and/or update other information on the WWI Timeline webpage.

For some entries, I will add hyperlinks to letters from the Coo-ees, or newspaper articles, which relate to that particular event or person, or add quotes to the Timeline from these letters and articles, or other sources.

Information will start being added to the WWI Timeline webpage in the next few days…

 

Postcard from W. H. Saunders sent from Lithgow

W. H. Saunders’ postcard sent from Lithgow to his mother (advising he was sending his port home with his washing)

I recently received a copy of this wonderful postcard that William Hilton Saunders, who was one of the Wongarbon Coo-ees, sent home to his mother Mrs E. J. Saunders at Wongarbon, while the Coo-ees were at Lithgow.

Postcard sent by W. H. Saunders, courtesy of Mrs K. Edmonds

Postcard sent by W. H. Saunders to his mother, courtesy of Mrs K. Edmonds

Back of postcard sent by W. H. Saunders to his mother, courtesy of Mrs K. Edmonds

Back of postcard sent by W. H. Saunders to his mother, courtesy of Mrs K. Edmonds

His grand-daughter has assisted me to transcribe the handwriting on the back of the postcard as follows:

‘Dear Mother

I am sending my port home to-day with a bit of washing & take all the trousers out & only send the pair of grey ones back. There is some grass in a piece of paper that I got out of the church yard at Wang, also keep poetry. We drilled all day yesterday & are leaving today. We might stay a day at Mt Victoria to see the caves.

Had tea with the Lucas girls last night. Lithgow is a very busy place but very smoky & dusty. We camped in the Trades Hall. Have been having all our meals in the military camp here with the other recruits & the grub is pretty rough. Ask Jack Ryan about our flag as we have not received it yet. All the boys are doing well hoping you’re the same also all the other folk.

Fondest love from your fond son Hilton.

[Written across the top left hand corner]

Will write & tell you where to send my port. We were all issued with Dungarees & white hats yesterday. We all look comical’.

The Coo-ees were at Lithgow from Monday 1st November to Wednesday 3rd November 1915. Based on the information W. Hilton Saunders included in the postcard, he wrote it on Wednesday 3rd November (the day the Coo-ees left Lithgow), and the Coo-ees were issued with their blue dungarees and white hats uniforms on Tuesday 2nd November 1915.

The McGregor brothers at Colyton

The McGregor brothers at Colyton

The Farmer and Settler reported that a recruit that joined the Coo-ee March at the village of Colyton on 10th November 1915 ‘… was one of the family of McGregors that has already given five sons to the Empire. As the family said their brave but tearful farewells to the sixth McGregor, all that witnessed that incident realised the fine loyalty of the McGregors…’.[1]

The Sydney Morning Herald, and The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, both reported that at Colyton ‘Here it was that a young man stepped forward at the call for recruits. He was a member of a family – the McGregors – that had already given five sons to the Empire’s cause, and he was the sixth. A little family group bade him farewell, as with some determination he took his place in the ranks…’.[2]

The Inverell Times, and the Glen Innes Examiner, both printed the following story:

'Last of the MacGregors' (The Inverell Times 19/11/1915)

‘Last of the MacGregors’ (The Inverell Times 19/11/1915)

‘As the Gilgandra “Coo-ees” marched out of the little village of Colyton (near Parramatta), Captain Hitchen remarked that more men were wanted. On the word MacGregor stepped forward. By him stood his mother, in tears, for MacGregor is the “last of his tribe.” The “Coo-ees” already had one MacGregor with them; the other four at the front. It was a tense moment; eyes glistened, and even the “Coo-ees,” who had seen many such partings, swallowed hard or looked round at the scenery. But MacGregor—he must be one of “the” MacGregors—was not moved. He took his place, and the column moved off’.[3]

Andrew McGregor (1858-1910) and Alice Mary McGregor (nee Hunt) (1862-1897), who both had died before the First World War, had six sons: Andrew James McGregor (1882-1938) who joined the Coo-ees at Gilgandra; Arthur Ernest McGregor (1884-1969) who signed up to join the Coo-ees at Springwood; William George McGregor (1889-1941) who enlisted in the AIF on 2nd February 1915 (Service no. 2064); Oscar John McGregor (1891-1932) who enlisted in the AIF on 1st July 1915 (Service no. 2886); Frederick Herbert McGregor (1893- 1939)[who does not appear to have enlisted]; and , Charles Henry McGregor (1896-1916) who enlisted in the AIF on 7th May 1915 (Service no. 2657).

It is not known which McGregor brother was reported in the newspapers to have joined the Coo-ees at Colyton on their way from Penrith to Parramatta on Wednesday 10th November 1915.  There was no official count for any recruits joining the Coo-ee March at Colyton.

Three of the brothers (William George McGegor, Oscar John McGregor, and Charles Henry McGregor) had already enlisted earlier in 1915, before the Coo-ee March.

It may possibly have been one of the two brothers who had already joined the Coo-ee March (Andrew James McGregor or Arthur Ernest McGregor), who may have briefly left the march to say goodbye to his family and/or finalize his affairs in Sydney (where both their next of kin lived), before rejoining the march at Colyton.

Alternatively it could possibly have been Frederick Herbert McGregor who may have stepped forward to try and join up to be with his two brothers who had already enlisted in the Coo-ee March, (and his other three brothers who had enlisted earlier in 1915),  and who may then not have passed the medical examination at Parramatta that evening.  Only 27 of the 41 who presented at Parramatta passed the medical examination.

However, only five of the six McGregor brothers appear to have been successful in enlisting in the AIF in the First World War.

A photograph of the five McGregor brothers who enlisted in the AIF was published in the Daily Telegraph on 22nd September 1916.[4]

The McGregor brothers - 2 were Coo-ees (Daily Telegraph, 22/9/1916)

‘McGregor brothers of Glebe’ (Daily Telegraph, 22/9/1916)

The photograph had the caption: ‘(1) Private Arthur E. McGregor, Australian Army Service Corps; (2) Sergeant-Signaller William McGregor, at the front; (3) Private Oscar J. McGregor, at the front; (4) Pioneer Andrew J. McGregor, at the front; (centre), Signaller Charles McGregor, died of wounds”.

If it was Frederick Herbert McGregor who tried to join his two brothers who had already enlisted in the Coo-ee March at Colyton, there is no mention of him in an article about the Coo-ees that was published a year later in the Sunday Times, which reported that ‘Wee McGregor [Andrew James MacGregor], as he was known all along the march, sold out a flourishing bakery business in Gilgandra to join the Coo-ees. He had three brothers at the front, and he wanted to follow them. On the way to Sydney another brother jumped in the ranks – five from one family’.[5]

 

[1] ‘The Route March : In the Suburbs of Sydney’, The Farmer and Settler, 12 November 1915, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116652489

[2] ‘Overland. March of the Gilgandra Recruits. Welcome at Parramatta’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 November 1915, p. 9, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15624001 ; ‘The March from Penrith’, The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, 13 November 1915, p. 11, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101787

[3] ‘Last of the MacGregors’, The Inverell Times, 19 November 1915, p. 4, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article185649407 ; ‘Last of the MacGregors’, . (1915, November 15). Glen Innes Examiner, 15 November 1915, p. 5, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article184175444

[4] ‘McGregor brothers of Glebe’, Daily Telegraph, 22 September 1916, p. 9.

[5] ‘The Coo-ees en route for Berlin : anniversary of their start’, Sunday Times, 8 October 1916, p. 9, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article121335018

 

Lithgow Ribbon

Lithgow Coo-ee Ribbon

The purple Coo-ee Badge was not the only ribbon given to the Coo-ees.

It was reported in The Farmer and Settler on 5th November 1915 that ‘Lithgow turned out in force to see the last of the “Coo-ees,” and each man was given a tri-color ribbon bearing the inscription, “Lithgow, 3/11/15. ‘Coo-ee!’ Good Luck!” as a souvenir of the occasion’.[1]

I was recently sent a photograph (below) of one of these ribbons that was presented to the Coo-ee March recruits at Lithgow.

Ribbon presented to the Coo-ees at Lithgow 3/11/1815

Ribbon presented to the Coo-ees at Lithgow

[1] ‘The Route March through Lithgow District’, The Farmer and Settler, 5 November 1915, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116680017

 

 

Review of Coo-ee March 2015 Re-enactment 17th October to 11th November 2015

Review of Coo-ee March 2015 Re-enactment 17th October to 11th November 2015

I have had the privilege to participate in the Gilgandra to Sydney Coo-ee March 2015 Re-enactment from Saturday 17th October to Wednesday 11th November 2015, where the marchers arrived in Martin Place in Sydney, and took part in the Remembrance Day Parade and Service, in my role as Administration/Research Officer for Coo-ee March 2015 Inc. (Gilgandra Sub-Committee).

I gave speeches at most of the commemorative services that were held at war memorials in the towns and villages along the route, which included a description of the Coo-ees’ arrival in 1915 in that town or village, based on newspaper articles of the time, and also provided information about the Coo-ees who enlisted there. I also liaised with local RSL Sub-Branches, local councils, and other groups to organise the services.

Highlights of the Re-enactment March included meeting family descendants of some of the 1915 Coo-ees, the involvement and support of local communities, and the interaction with many local school children along the way, with school children attending services, lining the streets waving flags, calling  “Coo-ees” to welcome the marchers, and giving the marchers “high-fives” as they marched by.

There was the opportunity for some “then and now” photographs.

Coo-ees having breakfast at Balladoran 11/11/1915

Coo-ees having breakfast at Balladoran 11/11/1915

Coo-ee marchers breakfast scene at Balladoran 18/10/2015

Coo-ee marchers breakfast scene at Balladoran 18/10/2015

Information on the Coo-ee March 2015 Re-enactment can be found at http://cooeemarch2015reenactment.com/ and there are lots of photos at  https://www.facebook.com/cooeemarchreenactment

Much of my time in recent months has been taken up with administration support in assisting my husband Stephen to prepare the traffic management plan for the route, and assist in planning and preparations for the Coo-ee March 2015 Re-enactment, so I have not had as much time as I would have liked to add further information to the cooeemarch1915.com website.

Now that the Coo-ee Marcch 2015 Re-enactment is over, Stephen and I will have time to return to our research on the 1915 Coo-ee March and the 263 men who enlisted in the AIF as a result of it, and add further entries to our website.

Bible in Blue Mountains City Library Local Studies Collection

Bible at Springwood Library

On 16th September 2015 I visited Springwood Library to meet with the Local Studies Librarian John Merriman, to view the bible on which the five Springwood Cooees recruits were sworn in, which is part of the Blue Mountains City Library Local Studies Collection.

Bible at Springwood Library (Photograph: H. Thompson 16/9/2015)

Bible at Springwood Library (Photograph: H. Thompson 16/9/2015)

Inscribed inside this small bible are the words: “This bible was used for swearing in recruits for Capt. Hitchen’s “Coo-ees” from Gilgandra, Springwood 8th Nov 1915”.

Inscription inside bible at Springwood Library (Photograph: H. Thompson 16/9/2015)

Inscription inside bible at Springwood Library (Photograph: H. Thompson 16/9/2015)

According to Shirley Evans & Pamela Smith in their book Remembrance : Springwood District Honor Roll 1914-1919, the men were sworn in at the ‘now demolished Springwood School of Arts’.[1]

Two photographs of the Coo-ees marching past the Springwood School of Arts building in 1915 can be seen on Blue Mountains Local Studies blog ‘’The Coo-ee March, 1915, “The biggest wash-up I ever heard of!” http://bmlocalstudies.blogspot.com.au/2010/09/coo-ee-march-1915-biggest-wash-up-i.html

This building, which was opened in 1913, was demolished in 1969, but the Foundation Stone still remains in the School of Arts Town Square in Springwood today.

[1] Evans, Shirley & Smith, Pamela, Remembrance : Springwood District Honor Roll 1914-1919, [Springwood] : Springwood Historians, 2008, p. 43.

Launch of new ‘Gilgandra’s Coo-ees’ museum display at Gilgandra Coo-ee Heritage & Visitor Information Centre

Launch of ‘Gilgandra’s Coo-ees’ new museum display in the Coo-ee March Gallery at Coo-ee Heritage & Visitor Information Centre

On Tuesday 25th August 2015 I attended the launch of a new museum display about the 35 men from Gilgandra who enlisted in the Gilgandra to Sydney Coo-ee March, at the Coo-ee Heritage & Visitor Information Centre at Coo-ee Memorial Park, Gilgandra.

The new display was officially opened by Mark Coulton MP, Federal Member for Parkes.

Gilgandra Shire Council Cultural Officer Kylie Moppett, Acting Mayor Cr. Ashley Walker, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society curator Shirley Marks, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society member Margo Piggott, Member for Parkes Mark Coulton, and Graeme Hosken and Mrs Imelda Silva. (Photograph: H. Thompson)

Gilgandra Shire Council Cultural Officer Kylie Moppett, Acting Mayor Cr. Ashley Walker, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society curator Shirley Marks, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society member Margo Piggott, Member for Parkes Mark Coulton, and Graeme Hosken and Mrs Imelda Silva. (Photograph: H. Thompson)

Pictured from left to right in front of the new display panels, which feature information on each of the 35 Gilgandra Coo-ees,  is Gilgandra Shire Council Cultural Officer Kylie Moppett, Acting Mayor Cr. Ashley Walker, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society curator Shirley Marks, Gilgandra Museum & Historical Society member Margo Piggott, Member for Parkes Mark Coulton, and Graeme Hosken and Mrs Imelda Silva.

A book titled ‘Gilgandra’s Coo-ees’ that was compiled by Margo Piggott to support the new display, which provides information about each of the 35 Gilgandra Coo-ees, including a photograph of many of them, was provided to the large number of people who attended the launch.

Family autograph book belonging to Mrs I. Silva, showing Bill Hitchen’s and officers’ signatures collected at Eastern Creek on 10/11/1915, and a purple Coo-ee ribbon. (Photograph courtesy of Graeme Hosken)

Family autograph book belonging to Mrs I. Silva, showing Bill Hitchen’s and officers’ signatures collected at Eastern Creek on 10/11/1915, and a purple Coo-ee ribbon. (Photograph courtesy of Graeme Hosken)

Also during the launch, Mrs Imelda Silva, with her nephew Graeme Hosken, donated an original purple “Coo-ee badge” ribbon to the Coo-ee March Gallery collection, which will make a valuable addition to the collection. This ribbon had been obtained by the family at the time the Coo-ees stopped at Eastern Creek in Sydney on 10th November 1915 during the Coo-ee March and was kept in the family’s autograph book.  A photocopy of the signatures that were written in this autograph book on this same day, which includes Bill Hitchen’s signature, was also donated to the Coo-ee March Gallery collection.

Badges worn by the Coo-ees

Badges worn by the Coo-ees (purple ribbons with silver writing)

I was fascinated to read about the ‘purple badges’ worn by the Coo-ees in the following paragraph published in the Sydney Morning Herald on 13th November, 1915:

‘Thus had the little army grown since it started out from Gilgandra on October 10 twenty-five strong. Ten more men from the little western town, set in a district where bug hearts are, joined the original twenty-five on the way; and from Dubbo, Wongarbon, Geurie, Wellington, Stuart Town, Molong, Orange, Blayney, Bathurst, Yetholme, Wallerawang, Lithgow, and the towns along the mountains, and, indeed, all the way down to Sydney, other batches joined in, and were supplied with dungarees and white hats – and the purple badges with the silver lettering, “Gilgandra Coo-ees—Hitchens’ Own,” with which the contingent set out.’[1]

What were these “purple badges” that the Coo-ees had worn on the Coo-ee March?

I recently visited the State Library of New South Wales to view one of these “badges”, after learning that one of them was in the Alex Halden (Joe) Miller papers in the Mitchell Library Collection. I obtained permission to take the following photograph:

Coo-ee badge (purple ribbon). Part of the Mitchell Library Collection at the State Library of NSW (Photograph: H. Thompson 22/5/2015)

Coo-ee badge (purple ribbon). Part of the Mitchell Library Collection at the State Library of NSW (Photograph: H. Thompson 22/5/2015)

It was amazing to see the purple ribbon in such pristine condition – I could still see the sprinkles of the silver paint used for the lettering on the ribbon.

Researching the purple badges worn by the Coo-ees further, I found that at Euchareena the ‘school children ran races for Hitchen’s “Coo-ee” badge’.[2]

At Molong over a pound’s worth of “Coo-ees” ribbons were sold for a shilling each to raise money for the march.[3]

The Leader reported that the Coo-ees wore their purple badges pinned to their shoulders when they marched through Orange.[4]

The rolls of ribbon for the Coo-ee badges had been supplied by Wises’, Ltd., in Sydney.[5]

So, along with the ones worn by the Coo-ees, and these additional ribbons that were sold and given away during the march, there were hundreds of them in people’s possessions at the conclusion of the Coo-ee March in 1915.

I wonder how many other Coo-ee badge ribbons are still in existence 100 years after they were worn on the Coo-ee March, hidden away in a family member’s First World War memorabilia tin or box, or in a photo album or scrapbook?

[1] ‘The Coo-ees. Gilgandra Men in Sydney’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 November, 1915, p. 19.

[2] ‘With the “Coo-ees.”’, Gilgandra Weekly, 29 October 1915, p. 2.

[3] ‘The Route March’, The Farmer and Settler, 26 October, 1915, p. 3.

[4] ‘Hitchen’s March to the Sea’, Leader, 25 October, p. 4.

[5] ‘Gilgandra Recruiting Association’, Gilgandra Weekly, 26 November, 1915, p. 4.