Per his military service record (Depot), Thomas Anderson was born at Redfern, N.S.W. He gave his age as 34 years and 6 months, his marital status as single, and his occupation as labourer. His description on his medical was height 5 feet and 8 inches tall, weight 154 lbs., with a fair complexion,[grey eyes], and brown hair. His religious denomination was Roman Catholic. He claimed that he had no previous military service. He gave his address as Roslyn Street, Mascot, N.S.W., on his initial Application to enlist in the Australian Imperial Force form. He completed his medical on the 25th October 1915 at Wellington (7 days after the Coo-ees left), then travelled to catch up with the Coo-ees at Blayney, and was attested by Captain Eade at Blayney on 26th October 1916.
He was listed in The Bathurst Times as being one of the five Wellington recruits who joined the Coo-ees at Blayney. 
After completing the Coo-ee March he went to Liverpool Camp as reinforcement for the 13th Battalion.
On 7th December 1915 Private Anderson, with fellow Coo-ee Private Denmead, while under the influence of liquor, were charged with begging alms in Campbell Street, Sydney, after they had ‘asked a military police officer for a “sprat” to get a drink’. Along with Private Denmead, he appeared before the Central Police Court, and was sentenced to one hour’s imprisonment.
Private Anderson was charged with being absent without leave from 1st December 1915 to 12th December 1915, and as a result, on 14th December 1915 he was discharged as not likely to become an efficient soldier.
On 24th April 1916 Thomas Anderson re-enlisted at Bathurst, where he gave his occupation as miner, and went into Depot Camp at Bathurst. He was transferred to the 53rd Battalion on 26th April 1916. On 5th July 1916 he transferred to the Trench Mortar Battery at Menangle Park.
On his embarkation roll his address at time of enrolment was Portland, N.S.W., and his next of kin was listed his sister, Mrs M. Cox, Roslyn Street, Mascot, Sydney, N.S.W.
ON 7th November 1916 Private Anderson embarked from Sydney with the 2nd reinforcements for the Light Trench Mortar Battery on the HMAT Ceramic A40, with regimental no. 1190.
He disembarked at Plymouth in England on 21 November 1916 for further training.
On 7th February 1917 he marched into the 4th Training Battalion at Codford in England.
On the 22nd February 1917 Private Anderson was taken on strength of the 13th Battalion.
On 27th February 1917 Private Anderson proceeded overseas from Folkstone to France, to reinforce the 13th Battalion.
On 1st March 1917 Private Anderson marched into the 4th Australian Division Base Depot at Etaples in France. On 5th March 1917 he marched out of the 4th Australian Division Base Depot to join the 13th Battalion. On 6th March 1917 Private Anderson was taken on strength of the 13th Battalion whilst it was training at Ribemont in France.
Just over a month later, on 11th April 1917, the 13th Battalion was involved in an attack on the Hindenburg Line. During this attack Private Anderson was wounded in action, receiving a gunshot wound to his right hand. Private Anderson was evacuated to the 56th Casualty Clearing Station, then placed aboard the 11th Ambulance Train. On 13th April 1917 he was admitted to the 1st General Hospital.
On 19th April 1917 Private Anderson was placed aboard the Hospital Ship Londonderry at Rouen for evacuation to England. On 20th April 1917 he was admitted to the 1st Southern General Hospital at Birmingham, England.
On 12th June 1917 Private Anderson was discharged from hospital, and granted leave to report to the Number One Command Depot at Pernham Downs in England on 16th June 1917.
On 30th June 1917 Private Anderson was charged with being absent without leave from 3.30 pm on 26th June 917 until 8.20 pm on 27th June 1917. He was forfeited two days pay.
On 30th July 1917 Private Anderson was attached to the 9th Training Battalion at Durrington in England.
On 7th January 1918 Private Anderson was sent to the Number Two Command Depot at Weymouth in England.
On 10th March 1918 Private Anderson departed England to commence his return to Australia aboard the Durham Castle for discharge with ankylosis in his right thumb. His ship stopped at Cape Town in South Africa.
On 30th April 1918 he was charged at Cape Town with (1) Conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline in that he failed to be on board HT Orontes at sailing time 2 pm, the draft to which he belonged having embarked at 10.30 am, and (2) being absent without leave from 2 pm on 19th April 1918 until 8 pm on 21st April 1918, when he reported back. He was awarded 168 hours detention and fined 31 days pay. He also was absent without leave from 10 pm on 29th April 1918 to 4.30 pm on 3rd May 1918, and his sentence of 168 hours for this offence was concurrent with his awarded detention on 22nd April 1918.
On 4th May 1918 Private Anderson departed Cape Town aboard the HT Borda bound for Australia.
He arrived in Sydney on 1st June 1918, and was discharged medically unfit on 5th July 1918.